So there is evidence out there that a certain number of COVID-19 patients do develop kidney injury. You see, the kidneys are a filter. They take blood from all over the body and clean it. Therefore, things that happen in the body or events that happen in the body can actually injure the kidney, either directly or indirectly. Initial evidence out of China showed that COVID-19 patients that are hospitalized, admitted to the hospital, had about a 3 to 9% chance of getting kidney injury. But now, observational data out of New York estimates that the kidney injury rate to be about 37% in those hospitalized in the hospital for COVID. And of those 37%, 15% develop severe kidney injury requiring dialysis. So what are the possible causes? Now the cause of most of the injuries is usually dehydration, which means it's usually reversible with IV fluids. Another problem with COVID-19 is that it's associated with your blood becoming hypercoagulable, which means your blood becomes very thick and clots easily, which can kind of plug up the kidneys. Now, if the infection gets really bad, a person can develop sepsis, which essentially means you get really sick. You have massive inflammation all over your body and your blood pressure drops, which in turn hurts the kidneys. And lastly, there is concern out there that COVID-19 virus may directly hurt the kidneys. And they think this because some of these patients that come to the hospital develop protein and blood in the urine, which is a sign of direct kidney filter damage. This situation is constantly evolving, which means evidence can change almost on a daily basis. My thought is, we're going to have to look back a year or two from now when all the dust settles to truly know how COVID-19 has affected the kidneys and other organs. Also how those organs took time to recover.
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