Dementia is really a progressive decline in one or more cognitive domains. The most common presentation is short-term memory loss and specifically memory for episodic events or things that happened just in the recent past. What distinguishes dementia from normal aging is really the effect on daily functioning. So with normal aging, we all experience some subjective memory loss, maybe more difficulty finding the right word to say or where the keys were left, but dementia is a significant decline in some cognitive domain, like memory, short-term memory specifically.
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