Risk factors include an enlarged prostate, strenuous exercise when there's underlying pathology present such as bladder calculi, bladder stones, bacterial cystitis, underlying kidney diseases, being on anticoagulant medications, blood thinners, recent urinary tract surgery. However, the most common cause of hematuria is infection, often triggered by sexual activity. Other risk factors include flank, abdominal or pelvic trauma. More serious reasons people may have hematuria include bladder or kidney cancer, inflammation of the kidney, urethra, bladder, or prostate, a walnut shaped gland in men that surrounds the urethra and helps make semen. Blood clotting disorders, including hemophilia, sickle cell disease, which is a genetic disorder in which a person's body makes abnormally shaped red blood cells, and polycystic kidney disease, a genetic disorder in which many cysts grow on a person's kidneys. If hematuria is significant, it may require a catheter, bladder irrigation, and perhaps a trip to the operating room to diagnose and manage the problem.
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