And then there are more invasive techniques where we can go in and disrupt or stop some of the blood supply to the nose. You don't want to cut off all the blood supply, certainly, but there are a lot of collateral blood vessels. Ligating or cutting one artery will not disturb the overall blood flow to the nose, but sometimes those techniques can be performed such as a sphenopalatine artery ligation. That's a mouthful, I know. What that means is we go inside the nose with surgical instruments. We go to the back of the cheek sinus, and if you keep going back, you can eventually find the artery coming out of the bone, into the nose. And we can put a clip on that artery. And very often that will help control bleeding. Another technique may be an interventional radiology or interventional neuroendomascular procedure, whereby a thin wire can be snaked up through the arterial system, maybe from the wrist up towards the nose, and deploy a medicine inside the artery. That's called embolization. And that stops a significant portion of the blood flow, again, helping stop the nose bleeding. These are some of the treatments on the treatment ladder so to speak, going from again, pinching the nose, the topical medicines, all the way up to the surgical techniques that we spoke about how we can control nosebleeds.
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