Surgery alone for glioblastoma is ineffective, and the effects are short-lived. Radiation and chemotherapy afterwards are required for treatment. Once the tissue diagnosis is confirmed from surgery, the standard of care includes radiation and chemotherapy thereafter, and the course of treatment for those can last for several months. The side effects from both can be harsh, but manageable. Swelling around the tumor or in response to radiation can be managed with corticosteroids. Anti-epileptic drugs are commonly administered through this treatment process. Post-surgical treatment can also include tumor-treating electromagnetic field therapy, which involves wearing an electromagnetic array for over 18 hours a day.