To understand what causes kidney stones, you need to think about dehydration. To use an analogy, imagine I asked you to dissolve a sugar packet in a large cup of coffee. With a few swirls of the spoon, all the sugar would dissolve, no problem. What if I only gave you a tiny cup with coffee and the same sugar packet? You wouldn't be able to dissolve all the sugar and some crystals would be at the bottom of the cup. The similar thing happens when you're dehydrated. There's not enough urine in your kidney to keep all the crystals dissolved. They crystallize out, start to form deposits and a kidney stone forms. This probably doesn't happen on one single day when you're dehydrated, but on average, over time, if you don't drink enough water and you have a propensity to make stones, kidney stones can form in this fashion.
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