"How can you determine these times you do this with ultrasound? When you put an ultrasound in your leg and you squish, you squeeze that patient's calf, you see that blood going up your heart and you don't see that blood coming down. If with the ultrasound, you squeeze the calf and the blood goes up, but then goes back again, your diagnosis is an insufficient vein. I.e. varicose vein, I.e. superficial vein insufficiency. And so what kind of problems that brings? Well, imagine this, if that blood is supposed to stay for half a second in your blood, in your legs, really your, the pressure of blood inside the vein is very minimum. If that blood remains in your leg for so many, second, four or five, that pressure in your vein is actually increased. And that stretches the veins in the veins of nerves in the outside. And that causes discomfort, that stretches those nerves and produces a problem. So just to summarize all this explanation I gave you in a fancy medical term. This is called vein hypertension, just like hypertension that people having their arms checked with a blood pressure machine. There is such a thing as vein hypertension is a high pressure of blood in your leg veins causing stretch pain, discomfort. And many of the things that are molecular level, for instance, the hemoglobin that is inside your blood is supposed to be back in your heart really quick. When the hemoglobin stays in your blood, in your legs for too long, that red cell contained in the hemoglobin extruded from the vein, and he goes and stains your skin. And that's what you see. Often these patients have this brown discoloration of their legs from the knee down, and you ask them, do you farm? And they're like, no, I use pants all the time. And this is what's happening in my, I'm Caucasian. And my legs are actually brown from my knee down. Well, it is that that hemoglobin inside the red cell contains iron and iron is brown. And that stains your skin. And that's not only ugly cosmetically, but also damages your skin and makes it very weak so that any trauma, any little trauma to your skin will actually end up in an ulcer. If I do this to your leg or to mine, nothing is going to happen to our legs. But if this is done to a patient with that venous fragility and the skin damage, that's going to end up in an ulcer in no time. And so that is basically the condition as to why varicose vein patients can end up in pain, discomfort, swelling, and venous ulcers at the end."